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The laboratory of Metallography performs metallographic studies of a wide range of metals, with emphasis on steels.

These studies include microstructure characterization, steel identification (in combination with chemical analyses and mechanical properties studies), image analysis such as grain size, phase fraction and particle size measurements, and creep stage evaluation.

In addition, failure analysis studies are regularly performed.

The laboratory incorporates hardness and microhardness measuring equipment which allows fast mechanical properties determination and measurement of case depth and surface hardening depth. Finally, macro-structure characterization (eg. forging and extrusion products) is performed. The tests can also be performed on-site, using portable hardness testers, and metallographic replication techniques. Long-time experience from power plant materials creep evaluation constitutes a major area of expertise.

 

Main Tests

  • Hardness in Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell (Scales B and C)
  • Microhardness: measurement of surface hardening depth in steels (case hardening, carburization), microhardness profile across welded joints
  • Metallography: characterization of alloy microstructures, creep damage assessment of high temperature components.
  • Image Analysis Applications: coating thickness measurement (e.g. plating, oxide thickness) – phase fraction measurement, grain size measurement, particle size measurement.
  • Macrostructure characterization: grain structure of forgings, macro characterization and flaw detection of weldments.
  • Failure analysis of components (using mechanical and metallurgical tests).
  • Identification of unknown metals.

 

Main Equipment

  • EMCO TEST M4C Hardness Testing machine
  • Micro hardness testing machine STRUERS DURAMIN 20
  • Automatic polishing – grinding machine STRUERS TEGRAFORCE
  • Hot mounting equipment STRUERS LABOPRESS
  • Precision cutting machine STRUERS ACCUTOM 5
  • Cutting machine STRUERS UNITOM 5
  • Electrolytic polishing and etching device STRUERS LECTROPOL 5
  • Optical microscope ZEISS AXIOTECH HAL 100 equipped with camera and Image Analysis software.
  • Optical microscope NEOPHOT equipped with camera and Image Analysis software
  • Equipment for on-site metallographic preparation and microstructure replication (replica technique)
  • Portable microscopes Euromex and Leica (equipped with camera CMEX 5) for on-site metallography testing.
  • Portable hardness measurement equipment for on-site measurements (rebound method and UCI method)
  • Portable ultrasonic thickness gauges STRESSTEL

 

 Detailed Laboratory Tests and Standards Applied:

HARDNESS TESTING HRB-HRC    (EN ISO 6508) 
HARDNESS TESTING HBW    (EN ISO 6506) 
HARDNESS TESTING HV30-HV10    (EN ISO 6507, EN ISO 18265) 
METALLOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION   (ASTM E3-11  ASTM E407  VGB-TW507  ISO 3057  ASTM E1558) 
INSPECTION PLANNING PER HOUR
FAILURE ANALYSIS SERVICES EXPERT ENGINNEER PER HOUR (MATERIAL TESTING NOT INCLUDED)
FORGING MACRO EVALUATION    (ASTM E3  ASTM E340  ASTM E381) 
EXTRUSION MACRO EVALUATION    (ASTM E3  ASTM E340) 
METALLIC COATING THICKNESS MEASUREMENT   (EN ISO 1463) 
SURFACE DEPOSIT THICKNESS MEASUREMENT   (EN ISO 1463) 
CASE DEPTH MEASUREMENT   (EN ISO 4516,  SAE J423, ΕΝ ISO 2639) 
MICROHARDNESS TESTING   (EN ISO 4516) 
MACRO EXAMINATION    (ASTM E3  ASTM E340  ASTM E381) 
GRAIN SIZE MEASUREMENT   (EN ISO 643  ASTM E112  ASTM E1382) 
STEEL IDENTIFICATION SERVICES EXPERT ENGINNEER PER HOUR (MATERIAL TESTING NOT INCLUDED)
PHASE FRACTION MEASUREMENT  (in house) 

 

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